Workspaces in

Workspaces are a way of working with multiple products, sites or apps from a single account. Everyone starts with one (its name is the same as your account name), and you can add or remove them as needed.

Selecting identifiers for people your workspace

When you set up a new workspace, we ask how you want to identify people. This determines the values (identifiers) that you can use to identify and represent people. These values are unique: each identifier represents an individual person; two people cannot have the same identifier.

Select your workspace identifiers
Select your workspace identifiers

If you use the Email or ID setting, you can identify new people with either identifier and set the other identifier later. This path can be especially helpful for cases where you identify people before they become users or customers (leads) by email address and then assign IDs to people when they become customers or users—when they generate an ID—later.

You cannot change this setting after you create your workspace, but you can create multiple workspaces with different identifier settings. You might have different workspaces to represent different organizations within your company, different supersets of people, and so on.

When you create your workspace and pick your identifiers, you should consider whether or not you might associate an email address with more than one person. If multiple people in your workspace might use the same email address, you would not want to use email as an identifier.

Changing identifiers in an existing workspace

For most use cases, we recommend that your workspace identifies people by Email or ID. If you created your workspace before June 2021, or started from a workspace with different identifier settings, you can enable both identifiers.

Before you enable new identifiers, we validate the people data in your workspace to make sure that your new identifier value(s) are unique and appropriate. See the section below to prepare your workspace before you enable new identifiers.

To enable both email and ID as identifiers:

  1. Go to Settings > Workspace Settings and click General Workspace Settings.
  2. Click Change Configuration.
    change workspace identifiers
    change workspace identifiers
  3. Carefully read about the things that will change for your workspace. You cannot undo this change. When you’re ready, click Change configuration.
  4. At this step, we’ll validate your people-data to make sure that you can safely enable both email and ID as identifiers. If your workspace passes validation checks, your new identifiers are enabled and you can start identifying people by email or ID.

If your workspace encounters validation errors—duplicate, invalid, or suppressed email addresses—we’ll email you and provide an export of duplicate or invalid profiles that you have to resolve before we can finish enabling your new identifiers. You’ll find the export under Data & Activity > Exports.

The most common issue when changing identifiers is duplicate identifiers. Go here to learn how to remove duplicates.

Validation errors when enabling identifiers

Before we can enable new IdentifiersThe attributes you use to add, modify, and target people. Each unique identifier value represents an individual person in your workspace. (email or ID), we validate your people-data to make sure that the identifier(s) you want to enable contain unique, appropriate values.

If we encounter validation errors when you attempt to change your workspace configuration, we’ll email you a list of the profiles you must fix before you can enable new identifiers.

Validation Error Fix for Migration
Multiple profiles have the same email address Delete all but one of the profiles containing the same email attribute, or change the email attribute so that all profiles have a unique email address.
Profile has an invalid email address Delete the profile or correct the email address.
Profile has a suppressed email address Delete the profile containing the suppressed email address or change the email address to a value that has not been suppressed.
Profile has an ID that is an email address, and the ID does not match the email attribute. Update the email attribute to match the ID or delete the profile.

Delete duplicate profiles

When you change your workspace configuration so that email is an identifier, we validate people in your workspace to ensure that each email is unique. If two people have the same email address, we can’t enable email as a unique identifier until you remove the duplicate.

We provide a CSV export of duplicate profiles (and other validation errors) under Data & Activity > Exports. You can use this list to find and remove duplicate profiles in your workspace and finish enabling email as an identifier.

When resolving duplicates, we recommend that you keep the oldest profile (using the created_at or _created_in_customerio_at attributes) and remove newer profiles. As a part of this process, you’ll remove profiles that you want to keep in your workspace from the CSV, so that your CSV contains only the profiles that you want to remove from your workspace. Then you’ll use that CSV as a manual segment to target and remove the duplicate profiles.

  1. Go to Data & Activity > Exports and download the export of validation errors that was created when you tried to change your workspace configuration.
  2. Identify duplicates in the CSV and remove the rows representing people that you want to keep in your workspace. Your CSV should contain only people that you want to remove from your workspace.
  3. Go to Segments and create a new manual segment. Upload the list of users you want to remove as your segment.
    Upload a segment of people you want to remove
    Upload a segment of people you want to remove
  4. Go to the People page and click adding filters.
  5. Click Add segment condition and select the segment representing the duplicate people that you want to remove.
    Select the segment of people you want to remove
    Select the segment of people you want to remove
  6. Click Select all people, and then click Delete.

When you’ve finished removing duplicate profiles, you can try to enable both email and ID as identifiers in your workspace again.

New behaviors when you enable multiple identifiers

When you enable email or ID as identifiers, you may notice slightly different behaviors from other workspace types.

  • Reporting Webhooks: the customer_id key is null if you add a person without an ID (by email only). You should update your endpoints to use the new identifiers object. See our webhook documentation for more information.
  • Segment Source events: After you migrate, message opens, clicks, etc. for people without an id are sent with the email address as an anonymousId. You can map these anonymous events to another destination or drop them.
  • If you had an email-only workspace, IDs are no longer auto-generated: In workspaces where email was the only identifier, people auto-generated IDs when you added them by email. In your email or ID workspace, this will not happen. When you add someone by email, their ID is null.

Manage Workspaces

Click your workspace in the upper left corner and then click Manage all workspaces to see a list of your workspaces. From here you can add, edit or delete workspaces (if you have more than one).

Manage workspace settings
Manage workspace settings

Add a Workspace

  1. Click your workspace in the upper left corner and then click Manage all workspaces to go to the Workspaces page.
  2. Click Add.
  3. Give your new workspace a name and a custom color to help you differentiate between your workspaces.
  4. Set the unique Identifiers for people in your workspace. In most cases, you should keep the default setting:
    • Email or ID: You identify/create people using either an email address or id value; both values are unique and changeable.
    • ID only: You identify/create people by id only. If you had an account with before May 2021, this was our standard workspace type.
  5. Set the default send behavior for the workspace:
    • Send messages normally: All messages send as defined in your workflow.
    • Test email delivery: Emails will send to a defined test address; other messaging types (Slack, webhooks, etc.) send as normal.
    • Never send messages: Message delivery is disabled.
  6. (Optional) Disable open tracking for emails. As an increasing number of email clients provide privacy settings that let people block tracking pixels, open metrics may appear misleadingly low. You can disable email open tracking at the workspace level, so that you aren’t distracted by potentially unreliable open rates. In general, we recommend that you focus on Converted and Clicked metrics instead; these metrics reliably measure customer actions based on your messages.
  7. Select the team members who can manage and access the new Workspace. You can’t disable access to a Workspace for an Admin; Admins can access all Workspaces in an account.
  8. Click Save.

When you’ve finished adding your workspace, you can switch between workspaces from the main navigation bar.

Switch workspaces
Switch workspaces

Edit a Workspace

To edit an existing Workspace, go to the Workspaces page and click ‘Edit’ in the Manage settings:

Edit a workspace
Edit a workspace

You can change your Workspace’s name, delivery settings or access permissions for team members. You can also change the color assigned to the Workspace to help you differentiate between them.

Delete a Workspace

To remove a Workspace, go to the Workspaces page and click Delete.

You must type your Workspace’s name (case-sensitive) to delete it.

 Deleted workspaces are not recoverable.

Deleting a workspace permanently deletes all campaigns, emails, customers, deliveries, metrics, and data contained within a workspace. Make sure you’re prepared to lose this data before you delete a workspace.

Workspace Permissions

If you isolate workspaces by project, client, app, or something else, you can limit your teammates' access to certain workspaces.

Admin users can select the team members who can access and manage a workspace. You can change access settings when creating or editing a workspace or when adding new team members to the account.

Workspace access permissions
Workspace access permissions

Admins can access all Workspaces in the account. You cannot disable an admin’s access to a workspace.

Disable open tracking

Open tracking relies on a tracking pixel—a small image—in your messages; when a user opens an email containing the tracking pixel, the image loads from a remote location and tells us that a user opened the message.

However, open tracking is not always reliable. In the interest of user privacy, Apple and the makers of other email clients have started providing options to prevent images like tracking pixels from loading when users open messages; this prevents us from tracking open events. In some cases, email clients and corporate firewalls immediately download images when a person receives an email, causing us to record an open events even if a person didn’t actually open the message.

You can go to Settings > Workspace Settings > General Workspace Settings to disable open tracking at the workspace level and prevent tracking pixels from being added to your emails entirely. This setting overrides the message-level Track opens and link clicks in this message setting. Disabling open tracking this way can help you both respect your audience’s privacy and prevent you from focusing on sometimes-unreliable open rates, as opposed to clicks or conversions.

disable open tracking when you create or manage your workspace
disable open tracking when you create or manage your workspace

When you disable open tracking, open metrics for emails may still appear in some charts or tables (in campaign metrics, etc), but will always show zero results.

Whether you continue to track opens or not, we recommend setting conversion goals for your messages and tracking link clicks as more reliable ways to determine the success of your messages and campaigns.

Automatically merge duplicate people

If your workspace supports email or ID as IdentifiersThe attributes you use to add, modify, and target people. Each unique identifier value represents an individual person in your workspace., there are situations where you can inadvertently create duplicate people.

If you created your workspace using the email or ID option after September 24, 2021, we automatically recognize and merge duplicate profilesAn instance of a person. Generally, a person is synonymous with thier profile; there should be a one-to-one relationship between a real person and their profile in But, if you inadvertantly represent a person twice, you can merge two profiles to correct the duplication. if you send an identify call that results in a Failed Attribute Change and all of the following things are true:

  • The identify request failed because the id and email in the request matched different people.
  • The id and email in the request matched exactly one person each.
  • The profile matched by id does not have an email
  • The profile matched by email does not have an id.

In this case, when we merge people, we treat the older profile as the Primary person and the younger profile as the secondary person.

The rules we use to automatically deduplicate people
The rules we use to automatically deduplicate people

To turn this setting on or off:

  1. Go to Settings > Workspace Settings.
  2. Click Settings next to Merge options.
  3. Enable Multi-identifier profile merge.
enable the multi-identifier profile merge setting
enable the multi-identifier profile merge setting


What data is shared across Workspaces?

No information is shared between Workspaces.

Workspaces are essentially separate instances of Each Workspace has its own people, campaigns, metrics, and other data.

How is billing calculated across Workspaces?

You are billed for the number of profiles you have and messages you send across all Workspaces on your account.

Is there any way of sharing data between Workspaces?

Workspaces are completely separate instances of, each with their own people and associated data. This prevents sharing information and potentially messaging the wrong person. However, you can copy workflow actions across Workspaces).

What about testing? Are Workspaces a way to do that?

Although not designed specifically for testing, Workspaces can be used to set up testing/staging environments. Each Workspace is assigned its own set of API keys and are completely separate from your other Workspaces. Once you’re ready to migrate a Campaign or message from test to production, you can copy entire workflow actions from one Campaign to another across Workspaces.

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